The Mass Manipulation Model
-The idea that the media might be a powerful social and political force momentum in the 1920's and 30's. (Shown in the political propaganda of Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany semed able to seduce and persude citizens in ways not possible prior to mass media.)
-Audiences seen as a mass of individuals that could be persuaded and influenced ("The Hidden Persuaders" book (1957) attempted to uncover some subliminal advertising techniques.)
-Media has been accused of corrupting young audiences. (1950's rock and roll, mysogynism, glorifying of guns and gangs through rap and hiphop.)
-Action from the BBFC. (This was particularly evident when the murder of James Bulger was linked to "Childs Play 3").
-Bendure and Walters. (The 'Bobo doll' experiments suggest children might imitate violent behaviour after being exposed to it. However this was criticised for not reflecting normal viewing conditions, also now children can distinguish between real and stimulated violence.)
-Drug Metaphors. (Marie Winn's book "The Plug In Drug" (1997), suggests that children watch television in a 'trance' having a 'glazed, vacous look'.
The relevance of the Mass Manipulation Model is limited in today's age of advanced media technology. Audiences are now more active rather than passive and more 'media savvy'. Audiences are aware of media manipulation and have more choice and control over how they consume media. However we should still not underestimate the power of media!